The following recommendations (links) present courseware particularly
pertinent to veterinary students in clinical courses.
Clinical Neuroanatomy Guide Guide (computers or tablets)
Interpreting neurological exams (i.e., diagnosing probable locations of destructive lesions) requires pertinent knowledge of clinical neuroanatomy. This web app concisely details clinical neuroanatomy and neurological syndromes pertinent to the neurological exam. All of the content is immdediately available within a single page by clicking tabs and accordian elements that are plainly visible as Contents links. The web app is is intended for students and clinicians who wish to review their neurological knowledge.
Locate Neurological Lesions Guide (designed for smartphones)
Clinical neuroanatomy and clinical syndromes are presented in the context of a web app Guide for locating neurological lesions of a destructive nature. The Guide is intended to motivate veterinary students to use their neuroanatomy knowledge to diagnose locations of destructive neurological lesions. The Guide presents pertinent terminology, regional neuroanatomy and descriptions of clinical syndromes. Neuroanatomy images may be tapped/clicked to toggle (show/hide) labels.
Locating Neurological Lesions Exercises (computers or tablets)
This web app provides opportunities to exercise neuroanatomy knowledge to localize destructive lesions based on clinical signs, for a dozen clinical cases. Intended for veterinary students who have had or are studying neuroanatomy, the web app promotes a probability approach for diagnosing lesion location. Via buttons, you may view: patient information (an image and neurological exam narrative); instructor entries (probability opinions of an experienced instructor); lesion location (the actual location(s) determined by necropsy or otherwise); next case (exit to the Home Page for a next case list or random case selection).
Video-clips of Clinical Neurology Cases (computers or modbile devices)
Intended to enhance neurology instruction, this web site delivers video-clips (640 x 480 .mp4) of selected patients of the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center. The patients exhibited either neurology disorders or normal responses during a clinical neurology exam. The video-clips are organized chronologically, by species, and by syndrome.
Vestibular Animations (computers or modbile devices)
Animations depict balanced vestibular nerve input and vestibular nerve imbalances produced by head aceleration and destructive lesions. Explanations of vestibular reflexes and the vestibular syndrome are included as background information.
Veterinary Urinalysis Interpretation Quiz (designed for smartphones)
A web app for students to self-assess correct interpretation of canine and feline urinalysis results. Following direct or random selection of a clinical case, multiple choice questions regarding interpretation of the urinalysis results are presented. Buttons are available to view the results, to choose or reveal the correct answer, and to display normal canine or feline urinalyses for comparison.
Canine Regional Planar Anatomy Quizzes (computers or modbile devices)
This web site enables students to explore canine planar anatomy. MRI, CT and Cadaver-Slab images, displayed in Transverse Plane, Dorsal Plane and Sagittal Plane views, are presented in random order per body region. Two modes of presentation are available: In Quiz Mode, three terms and five target frames are shown per image. Students match terms to frames by dragging or sequentially clicking/tapping. In Atlas Mode, numerous labels per image may be toggled on/off.
Canine MRI Atlas (computers or modbile devices)
This web site presents MRI images of the canine head, neck, thorax, abdomen, & pelvis, viewable in transverse, sagittal & dorsal planes, with labels that can be toggled on/off. The mouse or keyboard may be used to navigate through the images and toggle the appearance of labels. At all times, single-key navigation executed by Return/Enter is available: regions [h / n / t / a / p], planes [x / s / d], gender [m / f], and location within an image set [10...90%].
Canine Brain MRI Atlas (designed for computers and tablets)
This web site presents labeled transverse views of a Beagle Brain obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: T2-weighted, T1-weighted, and Proton-Density-weighted MRIs are included. Three viewing options are presented: 1] MRIs are paired with stained tissue sections to facilitate neuroanatomy identification; 2] brain MRIs are shown in situ within transverse views of the Beagle head; and 3] MRIs are featured in animated interactive quizzes intended to offer knowledge self-assessment of MRI brain anatomy (click/tap a term and then its corresponding target; if correct, a connecting line will appear).
MRI Brain Atlas
(designed for smartphones)
This web app presents proton-density-weighted MRI images paired with brain-transection images of a dog brain. The app is intended to provide quick access to canine brain MRI anatomy through a mobile device. Particular brain levels are accessible via a Gallery Menu (tap a small image) or a List Menu (tap a text button). At each level, a button toggles between MRI and brain section images. Labels per image can be switched on/off by tapping the image (or a Show/Hide button). Rostral/caudal buttons are available for navigation to adjacent levels. This web app can be viewed on a smart phone, a tablet, or a computer screen.
Canine Head MRI Atlases (designed for computers and tablets)
This web site presents images of a cadaver Beagle Head (Cranium) obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (T2-weighted images from a 3 Tesla MR system). Three Atlases show MRI images in transverse, sagittal, and dorsal planes of view. Buttons toggle labels and switch between bright and dark versions of the images, a slider generates gradations between bright and dark image versions.
Canine Brain Atlas (designed for computer screens)
This Brain Atlas web site consists of twelve transverse levels through a dog brain. The Atlas is accompanied by a Glossary-Index of brain anatomy terms. Level transections are labled. Labels may be toggled and levels navigated with the mouse or with key strokes. (A print version of this Atlas is available in A Practical Guide to Canine & Feline Neurology, 2nd ed. by Curtis W. Dewey, Wiley-Blackwell 2008.)
PNS Highlights Video Screencasts (computers or modbile devices)
Narrated synopses (screencasts) highlighting the carnivore Peripheral Nervous System are presented as video clips (800 x 600px .mp4). The video topics are: PNS vs CNS divisions of the nervous system; Neuron and Neurohistology background information; Spinal Nerves; Cranial Nerves; and Autonomic Nervous System.
Veterinary Developmental Anomalies (computer screens or tablets)
This web site presents Dr. V. S. Cox's collection of veterinary developmental anomaly images. The images are organized by system and by region. Anomaly commentaries and links to PDF descriptions of normal developmental anatomy are included.
Canine Gaits (designed for smartphones)
This web app employs cartoon animations to help veterinary students recognize the major gaits of cursorial quadrupeds (running animals), using the dog as a model. The ability to recognize gait strides and anticipate foot-fall patterns in a moving animal is important when identifying gait abnormalities.
Canine Gaits (designed for computer screens)
This original Canine Gaits web site was designed for computer screens. It presents gait descriptions and employs cartoon animations to help veterinary students recognize the major gaits of cursorial quadrupeds (running animals), using the dog as a model.
Minnesota Anatomy Courseware
Selected anatomy courseware approved for e-learning by the World Continuing Education Alliance and distributed via the global education network of the World Veterinary Association.
Neurological Exam web site (requires Flash Player capable browser)
Dr. Ray Whalen and his colleagues at Colorado State University have produced an outstanding Neurological Exam web site that includes movie clips of exam procedures and affected patients. The program is comprehensive and high in quality.