Brain MRI Courseware:
Canine Brain MRI Atlas
This web site presents labeled transverse views of a Beagle Brain obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: T2-weighted, T1-weighted, and Proton-Density-weighted MRIs are included. Three viewing options are presented: 1] MRIs are paired with stained tissue sections of a dog brain to facilitate neuroanatomy identification; 2] MRIs are shown within transverse views of the Beagle head; and 3] MRIs are featured in animated quizzes intended to provide knowledge self-assessment of MRI brain structures. (This courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player plug-in.)
mobile MRI Brain Atlas
This web app presents proton-density-weighted MRI images paired with brain-transection images of a dog brain. The app is intended to provide quick access to canine brain MRI anatomy through a smart phone. Particular brain levels are accessible via a Gallery Menu (tap a small image) or a List Menu (tap a text button). At each level, a button toggles between MRI and brain section images. Labels per image can be switched on/off by tapping the image (or a Show/Hide button). Rostral/caudal buttons are available for navigation to adjacent levels. This web app can be viewed on a smart phone, a tablet, or a computer screen.
Spinal Cord Courseware:
Spinal Cord Anatomy Lab
This web site is organized as the Spinal Cord section of a Neuroanatomy Lab Guide. It presents spinal cord anatomy via color images, including gross anatomy, segment-vertebrae relationships, meninges, blood supply, histology of spinal gray and white matter, and spinal tracts. Terms that students should learn are presented in bold type.
Spinal Cord - Discussion Questions
This web site presents thoughtful questions related to the Spinal Cord. It is intended for group discussion. The Group selects a question at random and attempts to achieve a consensus answer. Then that consensus answer is compared to an instructor's answer.
General Nervous System Courseware:
Interactive Neuroanatomy Quiz
New: This web site enables students to self-evaluate knowledge of basic neuroanatomy, in an engaging interactive manner. Within a selected topic, individual image screens present six question boxes and six randomly positioned answer boxes. Students either drag a question box to its correct answer box, or sequentially click first a question box and then an answer box. Correct choices are signaled by immediate changes in borders, colors & numbers for correct answers; incorrect answers evoke a mismatch pop up. A poster displaying selected question images is available: here
Neurobiology Concepts Checker
This web site focuses on veterinary neurobiology concepts, giving students an opportunity to clarify conceptual understanding via self-assessment. Per subject category, a series of query screens is presented randomly. Each screen consists of a centrally placed statement surrounded by four randomly positioned phrases that are either true or false. A Show Answer button reveals your success and offers a conceptual explanation. A Delete Screen button eliminates screens from the available pool. (This courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player plug-in.)
Neurobiology Concepts Checker (mobile)
This Neurobiology Concepts Checker is a web app designed for smart phones and tablets. For each selected Neurobiology Topic, pertinent concepts are presented in the form of a conceptual statement and four True/False questions.
Neuroanatomy Lab Tutorials
New (under development): This web site will present ten Veterinary Neuroanatomy Tutorials corresponding to topics taught in an instructional Veterinary Neuroanatomy Lab. The Tutorials can be used to complement or substitute for a Lab Manual. Each tutorial page displays an initial image; additional text and images are revealed by hitting the spacebar or clicking on a button or the image. Images are navigated via buttons or arrow keys.
Neurobiology Labs Overview — Preview & Review Images
This is the initial web site developed for self-study of Neuroanatomy Lab subject matter by veterinary students at the University of Minnesota (the site is gradually being supplanted by individual Lab web sites). Lab content, arranged for each of eight Neuroanatomy Labs, is presented in the form of images with captions, including links to other images.
Peripheral Nervous System Courseware:
PNS Highlights Video Screencasts
Narrated synopses (screencasts) highlighting the carnivore Peripheral Nervous System are presented as streaming video clips (800 x 600px .mp4). The video topics are: PNS vs CNS divisions of the nervous system; Neuron and Neurohistology background information; Spinal Nerves; Cranial Nerves; and Autonomic Nervous System.
This web site augments the Cranial Nerves section of a Neuroanatomy Lab Guide. It presents a stand-alone interactive tutorial for canine cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei, including: cranial nerve attachment sites; fiber-type cell column identification; cranial nerve nuclei in brainstem transverse sections; and cranial nerve nuclei innervation. The latter includes a self-assessment quiz which presents nuclei & innervation targets randomly and indicates correct answers by animation. (This tutorial courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player.)
Cranial Nerves - Animated Quizzes
Animated quizzes are presented for students to reinforce their knowledge of names, innervation targets, and fiber-type content of cranial nerves. The quizzes demonstrate the correct answer when a choice is made. Clicking RESET generates a new randomized version of the quiz. (Animations require browsers to use a Flash Player plug-in.)
Autonomic Nervous System
This web site presents autonomic nervous system anatomy and autonomic physiology/pharmacology. Visceral efferent nerve pathways to canine body regions are emphasized. The web site features animated tutorials for learning pathways and animation quizzes for tracing one's knowledge of sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to regional visceral organs. (Courseware animations require browsers to use a Flash Player plug-in.)
This site presents an image Atlas, consisting of over 60 labeled images with captions. Atlas images are linked circularly by Previous/Next buttons. To facilitate Atlas navigation, an associated Image Catalog features image buttons that are reciprocally linked to Atlas images. Web site images are grouped into five neurohistology categories: Neuron & Synapse; Neuroglia & Myelin; Central Nervous System; Peripheral Nervous System; and Meninges.
Embryology Highlights: Nervous System Development
This web site presents links to narrated synopses (screencasts) of nervous system embryonic development. Topics include: Early neural development, CNS development, and PNS & Meninges development. The screencasts were produced with Camtasia software; they are presented as streaming video clips (800 x 600px .mp4).
Clinical Related Courseware:
Animations depict balanced vestibular nerve input and vestibular nerve imbalances produced by either head acceleration or destructive lesions. Explanations of vestibular reflexes and the clinical vestibular syndrome are included as background information.
Diagnose Neurological Lesion Location Exercises
Via presentations of clinical cases, this web site allows students to exercise their neuroanatomy knowledge to locate destructive neurological lesions. Students diagnose anatomical location(s) by estimating a location-probability for each category of clinical signs. For each clinical case, students may: view neurological exam results, see instructor-generated probabilities & interpretations, and have the definitive diagnosis revealed. A Lesion Location Guide that presents neuroanatomy and clinical syndromes per neural region is included. (This courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player plug-in.)
Locate Neurological Lesions Guide (mobile web app)
This web app presents Clinical Neuroanatomy and Clinical Syndromes Guides. It is intended for veterinary students preparing to diagnose locations of neurological lesions based on clinical signs, using their knowledge of neuroanatomy. The web app was designed for smart phones. Neuroanatomy images may be tapped/clicked to toggle (show/hide) labels.
Video-clips of Clinical Neurology Cases
Intended to enhance neurology instruction, this web site delivers video-clips (640 x 480 .mp4) of selected patients of the University of Minnesota Veterinary Medical Center. The patients exhibited either neurology disorders or normal responses during a clinical neurology exam. The video-clips are organized chronologically, by species, and by syndrome.
External URL Links:
Link to Neuropharmacology Lecture Videos
Dr. Alice Larson, University of Minnesota, has produced an outstanding series of 21 Neuropharmaology Lectures that are available as YouTube videos. The lecture topics include: stimulants, anesthetics, opioids, sedatives, anticonvulsants, local anesthetics and other related subjects. The lecture content constitutes a neuropharmacology course designed for veterinary students.
Link to Neurological Exam web site
Dr. Ray Whalen and his colleagues at Colorado State University have produced an outstanding Neurological Exam web site that includes movie clips of exam procedures and affected patients. The program is comprehensive and of high quality. It requires a browser using a Flash player plug-in.
Link to Sheep Brain Atlas/Quiz
John Kubie, Dept of Anatomy & Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, has created a Sheep Brain Atlas/Quiz that is cleverly done using Java applications. He has made it freely available for educational purposes. The courseware must be downloaded and run on your computer.