Veterinary Anatomy faculty at the University of Minnesota
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Veterinary Neurobiology Courseware
Courseware Recommendations for Veterinary Students
Recommends courseware available on this Veterinary Anatomy web site for veterinary students studying neurobiology.
Brain Gross Anatomy Images
This Brain Gross Anatomy web site presents brain dissection images intended for veterinary students studying neurobiology at the University of Minnesota. Brain components are shown in intact or dissected brains of horse, cow, sheep, dog, or cat. Images of dissected brains are organized by anatomical region and by viewing perspective. Each brain image has an accompanying caption and labels that can be toggled on/off.
Canine Brain MRI Atlas
This web site presents labeled transverse views of a Beagle Brain obtained by Magnetic Resonance Imaging: T2-weighted, T1-weighted, and Proton-Density-weighted MRIs are included. Three viewing options are presented: 1] MRIs are paired with stained tissue sections of a dog brain to facilitate neuroanatomy identification; 2] MRIs are shown within transverse views of the Beagle head; and 3] MRIs are featured in animated quizzes intended to provide knowledge self-assessment of MRI brain structures. (This courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player plugin.)
mobile MRI Brain Atlas
This web app presents proton-density-weighted MRI images paired with brain-transection images of a dog brain. The app is intended to provide quick access to canine brain MRI anatomy through a smart phone. Particular brain levels are accessible via a Gallery Menu (tap a small image) or a List Menu (tap a text button). At each level, a button toggles between MRI and brain section images. Labels per image can be switched on/off by tapping the image (or a Show/Hide button). Rostral/caudal buttons are available for navigation to adjacent levels. This web app can be viewed on a smart phone, a tablet, or a computer screen.
Canine Brain Transections
A web site presenting neuroanatomy of the canine brain as seen in 20 transverse sections labeled to identify what veterinary students are expected to know in a Veterinary Neurobiology course. The web site has two divisions: 1] Brain Transection Levels, which correlates brain levels with brain regions, and 2] Brain Transection Atlas, which identifies anatomical components within brain transections. The atlas features two modes of identification: select a name & see the corresponding structure identified and described, or select a structure & see its name high-lighted. Users can toggle between the two divisions and navigate via an index screen showing small images of all sections. Pop-up glossary statements have been added. When a term is clicked in an Atlas plate, a dot label shows its location and a glossary statement describes it.
Canine Brain Atlas
This Brain Atlas web site consists of twelve transverse levels through a dog brain. The Atlas is accompanied by a Glossary-Index of brain anatomy terms. Labels may be toggled on/off and levels may be navigated with a mouse or key strokes. (Page width is 1200 pixels; a print version of this Atlas is available in A Practical Guide to Canine & Feline Neurology, 2nd ed. by Curtis W. Dewey, Wiley-Blackwell 2008.)
Cranial Nerve Nuclei - Animated Quizzes
Animated quizzes are provided for students to reinforce their knowledge of cranial nerve nuclei with respect to nuclear names, innervation targets, associated cranial nerves, and fiber-type per nucleus. The quizzes require students to manipulate screen objects in relation to dorsal, sagittal and transverse cartoons showing the nuclei. Correct/incorrect responses are signaled by changes in screen appearance. An explanation page (tutorial) is also included. (Animations require browsers to use a Flash Player plugin.)
Cranial Nerves - Animated Quizzes
Animated quizzes are presented for students to reinforce their knowledge of names, innervation targets, and fiber-type content of cranial nerves. The quizzes demonstrate the correct answer when a choice is made. Clicking RESET generates a new randomized version of the quiz. (Animations require browsers to use a Flash Player plugin.)
Interactive Neuroanatomy Quiz
New: This web site enables students to self-evaluate their knowledge of basic neuroanatomy, in an engaging interactive manner. Within a selected topic, each screen presents six question boxes and six answer boxes (randomly positioned). Either drag a question box to its correct answer box; or, sequentially click: first, on the question box and then on the answer box (obligatory for mobile devices). Correct choices are signaled by the matching appearance of boxes plus a border around the correct answer. Incorrect answers elicit a "Sorry Mismatch" popup.
Spinal Cord - Discussion Questions
New: This web site presents thoughtful questions related to the Spinal Cord. It is intended for group discussion. The Group selectes a question at random and attempts to achieve a consensus answer. Then that consensus answer is compared to an instrctor's answer.
Neurobiology Concepts Checker
This web site focuses on veterinary neurobiology concepts, giving students an opportunity to clarify conceptual understanding via self-assessment. Per subject category, a series of query screens is presented randomly. Each screen consists of a centrally placed statement surrounded by four randomly positioned phrases that are either true or false. A Show Answer button reveals your success and offers a conceptual explanation. A Delete Screen button eliminates screens from the available pool. (This courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player plugin.)
NOTE: A mobile Neurobiology Concepts Checker, a web app designed for smart phones, is available at this URL: http://vanat.cvm.umn.edu/mNeuroConcepts/
A web site for self-study by veterinary students studying Veterinary Neurobiology (CVM 6120) at the University of Minnesota. The site presents an image Atlas, consisting of over 60 labeled images with captions. Atlas images are linked circularly by Previous/Next buttons. To facilitate Atlas navigation, an associated Image Catalog features image buttons that are reciprocally linked to Atlas images. Web site images are grouped into five neurohistology categories: Neuron & Synapse; Neuroglia & Myelin; Central Nervous System; Peripheral Nervous System; and Meninges.
Neurobiology Labs Overview Preview & Review Images
This is the iniitial web site developed for self-study of Neuroanatomy Lab subject matter by veterinary students at the University of Minnesota (the site is gradually being supplanted by individual Lab web sites). Lab content, arranged for each of eight Neuroanatomy Labs, is presented in the form of images with captions, including links to other images.
A web site that presents color images corresponding to black & white images included in a printed Neuroanatomy Lab Guide. Each section of the Lab Guide is a page in this web site.
Spinal Cord Anatomy Lab
This web site is organized as the Spinal Cord section of a Neuroanatomy Lab Guide. It presents spinal cord anatomy via color images, including gross anatomy, segment-vertebrae relationships, meninges, blood supply, histology of spinal gray and white matter, and spinal tracts. Terms that students should learn are presented in bold type.
Brain Anatomy Introduction Lab
This web site is organized as the Brain Introduction section of a Neuroanatomy Lab Guide. It was developed to present beginning brain anatomy from different perspectives via a variety of color images of brain dissections and transections. The site is regionally organized corresponding to sections of the printed Lab Guide. Terms that students should learn for this Lab are presented in bold type.
This web site is organized as the Cerebellum section of a Neuroanatomy Lab Guide. It presents cerebellar anatomy and function via diagrams and images of brain dissections and tissue sections. The site is organized as follows: Anatomy, Cerebellar Divisions, Cortex, Peduncles, Circuits, and Function. Terms that students should learn for this Lab are presented in bold type.
This web site augments the Cranial Nerves section of a Neuroanatomy Lab Guide. It presents a stand-alone interactive tutorial for canine cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei, including: cranial nerve attachment sites; fiber-type cell column identification; cranial nerve nuclei in brainstem transverse sections; and cranial nerve nuclei innervation. The latter includes a self-assessment quiz which presents nuclei & innervation targets randomly and indicates correct answers by animation. (This tutorial courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player.)
Embryology Highlights: Nervous System Development
This web site presents links to narrated synopses (screencasts) of nervous system embryonic development. Topics include: Early neural development, CNS development, and PNS & Meninges development. The screencasts were produced with Camtasia software; they are presented as QuickTime videoclips.
Developmental Anatomy: Nervous System & Special Senses
This Developmental Anatomy Subject Outlines & Knowledge Self-Assessment web site includes Nervous System & Special Senses among a dozen embryology subject areas. For each embryology subject, the web site presents an Outline of Topics, linked to True/False Questions with Explanations, intended for instruction, rather than grading. Embryology terms are shown in color in the Outlines. (This courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player plugin.)
Neurobiology Learning Objects
A web site presenting animated modules for instructional use by faculty (and students). The term "learning object" refers to an instructional module of limited didactic scope that is designed be re-used by different instructors in different instructional contexts. These neurobiology instructional modules feature animation (Flash .swf content) to enhance interest and didactic impact. Individual modules can be viewed on-line, but each module displays a DOWNLOAD link for copying the module to a local hard disc via FTP file transfer.
Autonomic Nervous System
This web site presents autonomic nervous system anatomy and physiology, emphasizing visceral efferent nerve pathways to canine body regions. The web site features animated tutorials for learning pathways and animation quizzes for tracing one's knowledge of sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways to regional visceral organs. (This courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player plugin.)
PNS Highlights Video Screencasts
New: Narrated synopses (screencasts) highlighting the carnivore Peripheral Nervous System are presented as QuickTime video clips. The video topics are: PNS vs CNS divisions of the nervous system; Neuron and Neurohistology background information; Spinal Nerves; Cranial Nerves; and Autonomic Nervous System.
Diagnose Neurological Lesion Location Exercises
Via presentations of clinical cases, this web site allows students to exercise their neuroanatomy knowledge to locate destructive neurological lesions. Students diagnose anatomical location(s) by estimating a location-probability for each category of clinical signs. For each clinical case, students may: view neurological exam results, see instructor-generated probabilities & interpretations, and have the definitive diagnosis revealed. A Lesion Location Guide that presents neuroanatomy and clinical syndromes per neural region is included. (This courseware requires browsers to use a Flash Player plugin.)
Locate Neurological Lesions Guide web app
This web app presents Clinical Neuroanatomy and Clinical Syndromes Guides. It is intended for veterinary students preparing to diagnose locations of neurological lesions based on clinical signs, using their knowledge of neuroanatomy. The web app was designed for smart phones. Neuroanatomy images may be tapped/clicked to toggle (show/hide) labels.
Video-clips of Clinical Neurology Cases
Intended to enhance neurology instruction, this web site delivers video-clips of selected patients of the University of Minnesota Veterinary College. The patients exhibited either neurology disorders or normal responses during a clinical neurology exam. The video-clips are identified by case number and organized chronologically, by species, or by syndrome. Individual video-clips may be viewed in pixel dimensions of 320 by 240 or 640 by 480, the latter is intended for computer screens and class projection.
New: Animations depict balanced vestibular nerve input and vestibular nerve imbalances produced by head aceleration and destructive lesions. Explanations of vestibular reflexes and the vestibular syndrome are included as background information.
Veterinary Neuroanatomy Laboratory Guide
A screen resolution version of the CVM 6120 Lab Guide may be downloaded as a PDF file.
Additional Instructional Materials & Links
Link to Sheep Brain Atlas/Quiz
John Kubie, Dept of Anatomy & Cell Biology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, has created a Sheep Brain Atlas/Quiz that is cleverly done using Java applications. He has made it freely available for educational purposes. The courseware must be downloaded and run on your computer.