Neuroanatomy Tutorials

Brain Introduction


View a topic . . .

Brain Overview

 Embryonic development
 Brain divisions
 Ventricular system
 Cranial nerves

Telencephalon (Cerebrum)

 Cerebral hemisphere sulcus, gyrus, lobes
 Gray matter: cortex and basal nuclei
 White matter: corpus callosum & internal capsule
 Neocortex: formation & features
 Rhinencephalon: hippocampus & septum
 Functional areas; cruciate & coronal sucli


 Third ventricle
 Thalamus and interthalamic adhesion
 Hypothalamus: optic chiasm, hypophysis, & mamillary bodies
 Epithalamus: pineal gland & habenular nuclei
 Lateral & medial geniculate bodies (nuclei)
 Optic nerve, otic chaism, optic tract

Mesencephalon (Midbrain)

 Oculomotor and trochlear nerves
 Mesencepahlic aqueduct and periaqueductal gray matter
 Tectum: rostral and caudal collculi
 Red nucleus & substantia nigra
 Crus cerebri


 Fourth ventricle and rostral medullary vellum
 Trigeminal nerve
 Ventral pons: longitudinal fibers, pontine nuclei, transverse pontine fibers, middle cerebellar peduncle
 Vermis and hemispheres
 Cerebellar cortex (folia & sulci) and cerebellar nuclei
 Cerebellar peduncles: rostral, middle, caudal
 Flocculonodular lobe: nodulus (of vermis) and flocculus (per hemisphere)

Myelencephalon (medulla oblongata)

 Seven cranial nerves (VI — XII)
 Fourth ventricle: choroid plexuses & lateral apertures
 Pyramida and pyramidal decussation
 Rostral: trapezoid body & dorsal nucleus of the trapezoid body
 Caudal: olivary nucleus, nucleus gracilis, medail & lateral cuneate nuclei

Optional Online Resources . . .

Canine Brain Transections
This web site presents 20 transverse sections of a canine brain. The web site has two sections: 1] Brain Transection Levels, which correlates levels with major brain divisions per level, and 2] Brain Transection Atlas, which identifies structural components within brain transections. The atlas features two modes of structure identification: select a name & see the structure identified or select a structure & see its name high-lighted. When a term is clicked, a label shows its location and a glossary statement describes it.

Brain Gross Anatomy
This web site presents presents brain dissection images of horse, cow, sheep, & dog brains. Images are organized by anatomical region and by viewing perspective. Each brain image has an accompanying caption and labels that can be toggled on or off.

Interactive Neuroanatomy Quiz
This web site enables students to self-evaluate their knowledge of basic neuroanatomy in an engaging interactive manner. It includes the spinal cord.

Pertinent Terms List . . .

Brain Introduction Terms (PDF file)

Questions for Discussion:

In terms of major brain divisions, what is the composition of the forebrain, hindbrain, and brainstem?

In what ways is the rhinencephalon different from the rest of the cerebrum?

Why is some gray matter called called cortex vs. nuclei? Where does gray matter originate in the embryo?

What are the structural similarities of the cerebrum and cerebellum?

Corticospinal axons travel from the cerebral cortex to the spinal cord by passing through what white matter structures?

How is the ventricular system represented in each major brain division?, Can you trace the flow of cerebrospinal fluid?

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