This web page has been developed for clinical Residents interested in reviewing the applied anatomy of the canine and feline Lower Urinary Tract (LUT). This LUT presentation is organized via a series of questions. The audience is invited to consider each question before and after explanations by the instructor.

Several resources regarding the anatomy and physiology of the LUT are available from the University of Minnesota Veterinary Anatomy web site ( The online resources are listed below, with resource descriptions and URL headings.

Online Resources

This URL links to a PDF file containing the images used in this presentation of LUT Applied Anatomy for clinical Residents. The presentation poses a series of questions regarding the LUT. It is intended to be interactive. Residents are encouraged to express their answers to each question and then react to instructor explanations.

This web site that presents Embryonic Development, Gross and Micro Anatomy, Innervation, and Physiology, pertaining to the lower urinary tract of the dog and cat. (If a border appears when you mouse-over a site image, you may click the image to view a pop-up screen displaying additional information, an enlarged image, and/or an animation.)

Associated with the web site, a LUT Knowledge Self-Assessment component features True/False quizz questions. The quizzes geared for self-evaluation and instruction, rather than grading. Each quiz question is linked to a pop-up tutorial page.

NOTE: Because this web site requires browsers to use a Flash Player plugin, it cannot be viewed on Apple IOS mobile devices.

This web app presents core questions related to Development, Anatomy, Innervation, and Physiology, of the lower urinary tract of the dog and cat. Ten questions are posed and both Short and Detailed answers are provided for each question. Students are expected to think about how they would answer each question before revealing the short answer and then a detailed answer, both provided by an instructor. The web app is designed to be viewed on both mobile devices and computer screens.

The Applied Anatomy & Physiology of the Dog-Cat Lower Urinary Tract is available for download as either an eBook or a PDF document.

For this particular document, the PDF format works better than the eBook format in regard to keeping images and captions together. Browsers generally display PDF files when they are requested. The displayed PDF file may be saved to your hard drive for future use.

The eBook (.epub) file must be downloaded and then made available to your eBook/iBook reader. Depending on the browser, the ePub file may be immediately displayed (e.g., Firefox), following which it can be manually saved, or the browser may directly download the ePub file to the default location on your computer, where the reader can be directed to find it.

This web app was developed by C.A. Osborne so that students could self-assess their capability to correctly interpret canine and feline urinalysis results. First, students select a clinical case, either directly or randomly, and view the associated urinalysis results. Per case, five multiple choice questions regarding interpretation of the associated urinalysis results are presented. Buttons are available to select an answer, to reveal the correct answer, to review urinalysis results associated with the case, or to display normal canine or feline urinalyses for comparison.

NOTE: The web app was designed for smartphones, but it works as well for tablet and computer screens.

Exit to Veterinary Anatomy web site.